Holly Najaf is one of the important cities and millions of visitors visit the holly city yearly. It is a religious and scientific city, which has many religious schools. These schools teach jurisprudence, statesmanship, grammar, history, literature, and other sciences. Najaf is considered one of the important cities because it is the capital of the Shiites in the world and it is very important religious centre. The city was established hundreds of years ago and it a big university to teach the religious pupils from all over the world.
The essence of the existence of this city is the existence of Al – Imam Ali Holly Shrine, the shrine was hidden for many years – after his martyrdom at the twenty first of Ramadan at 40 A.H., Abdul Rahman Bin Muljim Al-Muradi martyred him. them Al – Imama Al – Sadiq displayed the shrine at the second century A. H. – the eighth century A. D.
Najaf lies in desert land, far from the river Euphrates about (20 KM) where the history of Kufa is. To the north of the city, there is Kerbala Province about (80 Km). Saudi Arabia is to the west; and there is the road of pilgrims and this road is the closest road between Iraq and Saudi Arabia for the pilgrims. To the south of the city, there is Al- Hira, the historical city, then Al-Qaddissiya province about (60 Km). In the eastern side, there is Al-Kifil Nahiya then Babil province.
Geographically, Najaf is in the central region of Iraq. It lies on the cross of the latitude (32) and longitude (44). The population of Najaf, according to estimations at 2006 about (505.856), this portion represents 48% of the total population in the province who are more than one million. Najaf lies in the edge of the western desert; its climax is desert, and it is about (69 M) above sea level. It is about (160Km) from the capital Baghdad.