The depth of the deep historical and civilization, which extended to several thousands of years of confusion in the era before the advent of Islam and embrace of the palaces and monasteries, the establishment of Kufa and the enlargement of Kufa at the beginning of the Islamic Era, and Kufa kept many civilizations, ideas, and arts. After Kufa the role of Kufa appeared the role of Najaf in its modern age and the large amount of sciences, art men, and poets that Najaf produced. All the above events constructed a lot of locations to be today archeological sites. The following are some archeological sites: –
Firstly: – Hira Kingdom and Al – Manathera State Archaeologies:
The ancient monuments like the ruins of monasteries which was spread in this area, different mansions which were destroyed and became as separated hills. The mansions like AL – Qasr Al – Abayadh (The White Mansion), Al – Adseyeen, and Ibn Blqa Mansions. In addition, the historical references mentioned many other mansions were in Hira.
Secondly: – Qasr Al – Khawarnaq (Al – Khawarnaq Mansion) it is near Al – Manathera area and towering over Najaf sea. Mansion is surrounded with palm trees, green areas, and villages. Al – Nu’man Bin Emr’e Al – Qais built this mansion. The mansion is unique in its architecture. The ruins of the mansion can be seen now.
Thirdly: – Qasr Al – Emara (The Emirate Mansion). It lies in Kufa in front of the house of Imam Ali (PBUH) near Kufa Great Mosque. The mansion was established to be the center for emirate and rule in (16 A.H.). It is one of the oldest Islamic monuments. The walls of the mansion can now be seen with its thick walls and there are six towers support each wall. In addition there are many mansions like Abi – Al Khaseeb Mansion behind Kufa city near Al – Khawarnaq and Al – Sadeer Mansions.
Fourthly: – Najaf Fences
Because of repeated attacks and invasions, a wall to avoid the risks surrounded The Holly Najaf City. According to the historical sources, six walls built at the area around Najaf, and other reference refers to four walls of a strong high fence and the last parts of which remained to this day at the end of Al- Sadeer Cross Street Sadeer Street Literary Association
The construction date of the last wall belongs to last year (1802). The Sadr-Azam Mohammad Hassan Khan Nidham AL – Dawla, completed it out after eight years of that date. He established the towers and observatories to prepare for the invaders. The high barrier fence punctured parts of the Supreme in the form of windows of different sizes through which the fighters to take the barrels of their weapons to strike the enemy. The trench was dig to a great platform for the payment of the aggressors, and the wall has a historic position of the advanced positions of the fence as seen in the revolution of Najaf in (1915 A. D.) against the Ottoman Turks. Then, the wall was witness on the revolution of Najaf in (1918 A. D.) against the British colonial power and finally the Great Revolution of Iraq (1920 A. D.).
Chari Sa’da (small river of Sa’da) and Al – Gantara L – Hajariya (the Stone Arch)
Chari Sa’da it is the separate line between Najaf and Kufa. The historical references refer that it was dig in (1132 A. H.) to conduct water to Najaf, which is higher than Euphrates and Kufa. Stone arch was constructed on this Chari (small river). The remains of this stone arch are still now in Alwat Al – Fahal in green area full of palm trees. There are four minarets on this arch; the minarets are built with brick. Local citizen are calling it Om Qoron (with Horns).
Sixthly: – Al – Ruhba Khan
On the terrestrial pilgrims road and about (30 Km) from Najaf lies Al – Ruhba Khan. It is location is near Al – Ruhba Village. The length of Khan is about (100 M) and the width of Khan is about (80 M). The Khan was constructed with stones and roofed by using domes for the roofs. There are half square towers in the corners of the main entrance. This Khan or mansion has long history and the historical references explain it.
Seventh: – Om Qoron (with Horns) minaret
To the south – west of Al – Fuhba Village and on the pilgrims road about (16 Km) from it, lies Om Qoron (with Horns). Such minaret was established on the desert roads for signal and guide and to know the way in the long travel. Such minarets where built on high land so the passengers are able to see it.
Eighth: – Al – Shaylan Khan
In the center of the old city of Najaf and in the beginning of Al-Khawarnaq Street beside Al-Khawarnaq high school lies Al – Shaylan Khan., which is consider one of the biggest and most stateliest historical buildings in Najaf. The Khan was built in the Ottoman era to receive the visitors as hostel building. After the completion of the building, it became the center of the Ottoman ruler in Najaf. The Khan consists of two floors, the area is (1500M 2), and height is (12 M). The Khan is considering one of the National Symbols for the citizen of Najaf against the Ottoman and English colonialism. The revolutionary men of Najaf blockaded the Ottoman ruler in (1915), during the revolution of Najaf against the Ottoman. In it held the Civil Najaf Government until (1917 A.D.). in addition, there are many signs for Najaf Revolution in (1918 A.D.) against the British colonialism. Finally, it became a prison for the British prisoners after the big loss of the British in Al – Raranjiya battle in the Revolution of 1920. The Najaf Magazines said that the prisoners were (148) prisoners; (80) British prisoners and with them two officers and (66) Indian prisoners from different religions. Later the number of the prisoners increased, when the revolters added other prisoners to be (167) prisoners. The wall of Khan contains many scripts and drawings of the British prisoners.
Ninth: – Old Khans
A.Khan Al – Mosala (pray) Al – Rubo’a (the quarter Khan): it lies about (20 KM) from Najaf, in quarter distance between Najaf and Kerbala. The visitors used to use this Khan for spending or passing the night and rest, when visiting the Holly Shrines. The Khan was constructed in Ottoman era in the end of the nineteenth century. The Khan contains two Khans separated by a wide door and contains many rooms, stables, and well. The external wall of Khan supported with half – square towers.
- Khan Al – Hamad (Desert) or Khan Al – Nos (The half): it lies about (40 Km) from Najaf in Al – Haydaria District in the right side for the person who comes from Najaf. Khan Al – Nekhaila is another Khan, it belongs to Kerbala Province, and it is in the middle of the distance between Najaf and Kerbala.
- Khan of Al – Haj (the pilgrim) Otaya Abu Kilal: – it was exist until (1982 A.D.) then it was eliminated and became in the commercial area on Imam Ali street. In addition, there are many Khans inside and outside Najaf